CSM-07

General Science & Technology

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The information under the segment includes the systems in human machine, major natural observation based understandings, advances in genetic engineering, initiatives and schemes under ICT, organisations and missions under space technology, defence sector technologies, renewable, non-renewable and nuclear energy, nuclear fission and fusion, and Covid-19 nano-coating, ICONSAT, & black gold development.

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Course Overview

Science as epistemology and quest encompasses the systematic study of the structure and behaviour of the physical and natural world through observation and experiment, and technology is the application of scientific knowledge for practical purposes. Science goes with conquering new frontiers of nature and technology enables its speedy growth. Science demystifies magic and miracles and provides satisfactory answers to human quest. Controlled methods are generally used in the discovery of science. Science also goes with fathomless human imagination and establishes truth for common observation. Universalism, objectivity, scepticism and organised criticism are the rare impulses used in the progress of science and scientific temperament. The technological apparatus has enabled humans to make many breakthroughs. The domain of science and technology can easily be comprehended through physics, chemistry, biology and new emerging cross-cutting paradigms. Technology emerges as a powerful tool to accelerate the momentum of scientific progress. The tripartite of physical observation of nature, the chemical actions and reactions and human and plant anatomy have immense power to control deterministically the living and non-living beings. As such, ‘Science and Technology’ is one of 7 significant themes of the CSE (Preliminary) syllabus. The important short notes of the science and technology theme are as under:

1.       The ‘systems in human machine’ primarily includes the major systems of human biology. These are the integumentary system, digestive system, respiratory system, circulatory system, nervous system, muscular system, skeletal system, endocrine system and reproductive system.

2.       Biotechnology consists of genetic engineering, recombinant DNA technology, three-parent baby technique, animals, plants and bacteria, Gel electrophoresis, GMO, various therapy methods, transgenic animals, PCR, bioremediation, Bt crops, vaccines, gene editing, Cas 9 systems, and recent development in biotechnology.

3.        ‘Information, communication and technology (ICT)’ includes computing technology and devices, utilities of ICT, the negative impact of ICT on health, telecommunication, 1G, 2G, 3G, 4G &5G, VOIP, IPV6, Wi-Fi technology, WiMax technology, LED, IoT, the fourth industrial revolution, artificial intelligence and robotics, Cyborg, supercomputers, National supercomputing mission, quantum supremacy, digital India mission, NDCP-2018, and cloud computing.

4.       Space technology specifically captures components like Indian  Space Research Organisation (ISRO), Indian National Satellite System (INSAT), Edusat programme, Gramsat, telemedicine, disaster management services, satellite launch vehicles, remote sensing satellites, Chandrayaan-I & II missions, Mangalyaan mission, GAGAN, HySYS, GSAT-9, Aditya Mission, NISAR mission and recent advances. 

5.       Defence sector technology includes self-reliant and self-capabilities, major functions of DRDO,  Infantry Combat Vehicle (ICV), Abhay, Explosive Reactive Armour (ERA), Light Combat Aircraft &Tejas and its variants,  Main Battle Tank-ARJUN, IGMDPs, Missiles by DRDO, SFDR, Mission Shakti, Submarines, Unmanned aerial vehicles and latest development in the defence sector.

6.       The Power Development of India incorporates the energy policy of India, renewable, non-renewable and nuclear energy sources, central electricity authority, National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC), National Hydroelectric Power Corporation Limited (NHPC), Rural Electrification Corporation (REC), Power Grid Corporation of India Limited (PGCIL), Central Power Research Institute (CPRI), gas production in India, Rare earth minerals and recent initiatives in energy sectors.

7.       Nuclear technology includes the functions of the department of atomic energy, nuclear power in India, nuclear fuel cycle, nuclear fusion & fission, stellarator, radioactivity, R&D in India, radioisotopes, nuclear agriculture and radiocarbon dating.

8.       Nanotechnology includes the application of nanotechnology in different sectors of development, initiatives taken by GoI, Covid-19 Nano Coating, ICONSAT, black gold development and so on.   

Reference Books

1.  NCERT books for VIII, IX, X Standard on Biology

2.  The Hindu or Indian Express Newspaper

3.  Monthly Magazine ‘Science Reporter for Science & Technology’

4.  Science and Technology in India – Kalpana Rajaram – Spectrum

5.  Science & Technology  -  Ashok Kumar Singh



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The information under the segment includes the systems in human machine, major natural observation based understandings, advances in genetic engineering, initiatives and schemes under ICT, organisations and missions under space technology, defence sector technologies, renewable, non-renewable and nuclear energy, nuclear fission and fusion, and Covid-19 nano-coating, ICONSAT, & black gold development.

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